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The Hamilton Law Blog

Did a bun in the oven leave you feeling burned by employers?

Being pregnant can be one of the happiest times in many New Jersey residents' lives. You and your partner may feel excited about having a baby on the way and cannot wait to get the house in order so that your child's arrival will go as smoothly as possible. Of course, with the excitement likely also comes apprehensions. These feelings are normal as anyone can feel nervous about caring for a child, but you may also have concerns about how your pregnancy may impact your career.

Whether you are looking for a job while pregnant or already have a job and become pregnant, discrimination concerns may have you feeling wary. Unfortunately, some employers or potential employers may show signs of bias against you when they learn of your pregnancy. However, if they treat you unfairly due to your expectancy, they may have broken the law.

3 factors to consider when choosing business successors

Because many New Jersey business owners often look at their companies as an important part of their lives that they took the time to create, it can feel strange to think about handing the business off to another person. Even though you may wish you could continue running your company until it closes its doors, that may not be a feasible hope. If you want your company to continue to thrive, you may want to carefully think about business succession.

Choosing the right individual or individuals to take over leadership roles within your business can have its challenges. You certainly want to make sure the right candidates are up for the tasks and that you feel as if you are leaving your company in good hands when the time comes. Therefore, you may want to consider certain factors when determining your potential successors.

Don't terminate potential future opportunities if you get fired

Whether you've been employed at the same New Jersey company for a while or you have barely had a chance to settle in and get to know your co-workers, losing a job is never easy. The former is often more challenging than the latter since the longer you spend at a certain place, the more likely you are to be emotionally attached as well. Just because you lose a job, however, doesn't mean life will be all downhill from there.

If you know ahead of time where to turn for support and can persevere through the challenges you may face in the aftermath of job termination, you may wind up finding an even better opportunity that makes you wish you'd have left your old job sooner. If, on the other hand, you believe you were wrongfully terminated from your position, the road ahead may get a whole lot worse before it gets better.

When the boss doesn't play fair

The law protects New Jersey workers from various forms of discrimination in the workplace. Perhaps you've heard stories of people whose bosses wrongfully terminated their positions for one reason or another. For instance, more than one woman wound up losing her job just after telling her boss she was pregnant. Others say they were only trying to protect the community at large when they reported safety violations to the appropriate officials, only to later learn their positions had suddenly been made obsolete.

Another issue that often causes workplace contention is gender. Do you always feel like your boss treats you differently simply because you're the opposite gender?  The idea of gender bias in a 21st century work environment may seem a bit ridiculous to some. However, if you're the subject of this type of discrimination, you understand that it's anything but silly. In fact, it can be a very serious matter when it negatively affects your ability to carry out your workplace duties.

Who makes the coffee? Discrimination may be subtle.

Discrimination comes in as many shapes and sizes as people do. This is why the list of groups that have protected status under federal anti-discrimination laws seems to grow longer every few years. Even if you are among those whom federal law already protects, you may be feeling that someone at work is treating you unfairly.


Its time for a gut check. As you approach the end of the year and have a little time off before 2017 hits, do a little self reflection. Your leadership team and decision makers are asking the same questions about you as we speak (or read).

NJ Senate Bill 992-Important Protections for Women in the Workplace

The N.J. legislature sent Senate Bill 992 to Governor Christie for adoption.  S. 992 amends the N.J. Law Against Discrimination (LAD) making wage disparities amongst similarly situated employees expressly unlawful.  The Bill imposes treble damages upon any employer found to be in violation and further, expands the statute of limitations to restart with every instance, expanding the two (2) year statute of limitations established by the federal Lily Ledbetter Law.   While the federal Equal Pay Act also provides for these protections, it does not expand the statute of limitations or provide the other protections that S. 992 does.
S. 992 also protects employees from retaliation if they disclose their pay levels to other employees and specifically makes it unlawful to require employees to sign a document shortening the statute of limitations for LAD and equal pay claims or to waive the protections of the Law Against Discrimination as a condition of their employment.
Gov. Christie vetoed S. 992 on May 2, 2016 saying that it was not friendly to businesses and that there was no reason to further legislate this issue. NJ.com
It has been 53 years since the passage of the Equal Pay Act and White women are still only making $0.70-$0.80 for every dollar earned by a White male.  African American and Hispanic women make even less.  There is also a clear pay disparity between wages earned by White men and Hispanic or African American men.  See article in NJ.com.  The Bill sponsored by Sen. Loretta Weinberg (D-Bergen) provided the much needed teeth to this law to "encourage" companies to do the right thing and pay their women and minority employees fairly.
S. 992 is finally THE LAW that will make businesses do the right thing where the current law and society has failed to convince them of the virtues of equal pay for all of their workers.
Gov. Christie's veto can be overturned by a vote of 2/3rds of the legislature.
So, for yourself, and your mothers, sisters and daughters, its time to speak up!
Contact your legislator to encourage them to override this veto.


The EEOC is amending its EEO-1 form (the Employer Information Report) to include questions about pay ranges and hours worked by employees.  This data will reveal patterns or trends in pay disparities.   The current EEO-1 Form provides information on workforce profiles such as race, gender, ethnicity and job category but doesn't seek information on pay ranges or hours worked.  The new EEO-1 Form will go into effect in September 2017. EEOC Press Release (1/29/2016)
This tracking mechanism together with the proposed changes in the N.J. Law Against Discrimination (LAD) are represent giant strides towards eliminating gender pay disparities in the workplace.  The proposed changes to the LAD as vetoed by Gov. Christie are slowly being made the law by the New Jersey Supreme Court.
On June 15, 2016, the NJ Supreme Court ruled that it is unlawful for an employer to require an employee to agree to a shortened statute of limitations period in an employment agreement.  Rodriguez v. Raymours Furniture.  This was one of the changes proposed in Senate Bill 992 vetoed by Gov. Christie.  S. 992 also protects employees from retaliation if they disclose their pay levels to other employees and specifically makes it unlawful to require employees to sign a document shortening the statute of limitations for LAD and equal pay claims or to waive the protections of the Law Against Discrimination as a condition of their employment.  Hopefully the NJ Supreme Court will rule in accordance with these proposed changes establishing precedent where the Governor wouldn't make new law.
Irrespective of the mechanism, the current federal and NJ trend is to pay special attention to the gender pay disparities.  EEOC Chair Jenny R. Yang said "More than 50 years after pay discrimination became illegal it remains a persistent problem for too many Americans.  Collecting data is a significant step forward in addressing discriminatory pay practices.  This information will assist employers in evaluating their pay practices to prevent pay discrimination and strengthen enforcement of our federal anti-discrimination laws."
It is imperative that NJ businesses begin to analyze their own statistics now to avoid enforcement penalties down the line.

Lessons Learned From Carlson v. Ailes

On July 6, 2016, Gretchen Carlson filed suit against Roger Ailes for severe and pervasive sexual harassment suffered while working at Fox News.  Roger Ailes resigned in July 2016, and Carlson's case settled in September 2016 with Fox News' parent company paying her $20,000,000.
The Complaint provides the sordid details of what Carlson says she suffered while working for Ailes.  Since the case settled before any real litigation took place, we can only assume that Ailes and his attorney would have cleverly denied that any of these events took place and that there were "legitimate business reasons" for the changes in Carlson's schedule, lack of prime job assignments and other retaliatory actions alleged by her.
Carlson got lucky because the price tag to Fox News in settling was lower than the cost of litigating plus the value of the judgment had Carlson won at trial.

The "he said, she said" type of facts in this Complaint are fairly routine in employment cases, especially those alleging sexual harassment. Very rarely does the offensive harassment take place in front of witnesses. The difference is that the cases don't generally settle this fast or for such high numbers but the high profile nature of the litigants certainly had something to do with it.  A "regular Jane/Joe" employment litigant endures day long depositions, discovery requests, and potentially, a stressful trial.


As you start a new job, be alert to non-compete restrictions that your new employer may wish to impose upon you.  Increasingly, employers seem to require their new employees to sign Non-Compete Agreements restraining where they may work if they leave the job.  The idea is to incentivize employees to stay in this job because leaving may mean that they are not allowed to work in their preferred industry for a period of time.  Depending on the type of employer and your specific job, you may be restrained for working in your industry anywhere in the United States for a period of one or two years.  While our courts do not favor non-competes, they will enforce them where they are reasonable in the time period and geography of the restraints. As you think about leaving a job, consider all of the different documents that you have signed when you started the job or during the course of your employment.  You may not realize that "hidden" non-compete's exist in a variety of contexts.  You want to make sure that you are in compliance but also able to earn a living in your chosen profession.  There are a variety of factors that will go into analyzing whether a court will enforce the non-compete as a whole or a particular provision within it.  Examining the circumstances of your employment together with those surrounding the execution of the actual restrictive covenant may reveal unenforceable provisions that allow you to move on to your next job without restriction.

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